What is Price Fixing in Real Estate?

Price fixing has long been a problem in the real estate industry, allowing developers and builders to artificially inflate home prices. This practice results in consumers paying more for their homes than they would if...

Price fixing has long been a problem in the real estate industry, allowing developers and builders to artificially inflate home prices. This practice results in consumers paying more for their homes than they would if prices were determined by the market. While proving price fixing can be challenging, numerous cases have exposed developers and builders who engage in this practice and have faced appropriate punishment.

Understanding Price Fixing in Real Estate with an Example

Price fixing involves an illegal agreement between two or more parties not to compete on price. This means they all charge the same price for the same product or service. This can be achieved by setting a minimum or maximum price, limiting sales to specific channels, or rejecting customers who seek better prices.

A real estate example of price fixing would be if a group of agents agreed not to offer lower commission fees than their peers. This arrangement limits competition and allows agents to charge higher fees. Another example would involve developers agreeing not to sell new homes below a certain price, effectively maintaining high prices and preventing buyers from finding bargains.

The Impact of Price Fixing on Consumers

When businesses engage in price fixing, it leads to higher prices for consumers and reduces competition in the market. Price fixing also has the potential to decrease the quality and variety of choices available to consumers.

price fixing in real estate Caption: Price fixing in the real estate industry

The Significance of the Clayton Act and Sherman Antitrust Act for Real Estate

Two crucial pieces of legislation, the Clayton Act and Sherman Antitrust Act, play a vital role in the real estate industry. The Clayton Act, established in 1914, regulates mergers and acquisitions to prevent monopolies. The Sherman Antitrust Act, passed in 1890, prohibits anticompetitive practices such as price fixing. Both laws have significantly impacted the real estate industry by fostering competition and curbing abusive practices by large corporations.

Common Antitrust Violations in Real Estate

Various antitrust violations can occur within the real estate industry. The most prevalent violation is price fixing, where real estate companies agree to fix prices at a particular level. This can occur through agreements between brokers, agents, or even developers. Another common violation is bid rigging, where companies conspire to avoid competing with one another for a specific real estate listing. This can be achieved by refraining from soliciting bids from other companies or submitting identical bids. Both these activities are illegal and subject to severe penalties.

5 Antitrust Violations in Real Estate You Need to Understand

1. Fixing Prices

In the United States, antitrust laws aim to protect consumers against unfair business practices, ensuring a level playing field in the marketplace. However, some businesses attempt to circumvent these laws by engaging in price fixing. Price fixing is an agreement between companies to set prices at a certain level, artificially preserving high prices and stifling competition. This practice is illegal under antitrust law, and the real estate industry is not exempt. Companies found guilty of price fixing can face substantial fines and may be prohibited from conducting business in the United States.

price fixing in real estate

2. Steering and Real Estate Commissions

The U.S. Department of Justice has been investigating potential antitrust violations in the real estate industry, focusing on steering and real estate commissions. Steering refers to when a real estate agent attempts to influence a buyer or seller in transacting property in a particular area or price range, often motivated by higher commissions. Real estate commissions are also under scrutiny as possible antitrust violations. The DOJ's ongoing investigation could have significant implications for the industry if these practices are found to be anti-competitive.

3. Group Boycotts

Group boycotts are illegal under federal antitrust law and occur when a group of individuals or businesses collectively agrees not to do business with a particular person or company. This can be done to force the targeted entity to change their prices, terms of service, or other business practices. State antitrust laws often mirror federal laws and may also prohibit group boycotts.

4. Collectively-run, Multiple-Listing Services

Some real estate brokerages have formed collectively-run, multiple-listing services to increase their market power. However, these actions may violate antitrust laws and harm consumers. Such services give participating brokerages an unfair competitive advantage by enabling the sharing of exclusive information and resources, making it challenging for new entrants to compete. The Department of Justice has taken action against some of these services for antitrust law violations, while others will likely face similar scrutiny in the future. Consumers should be aware of these issues and ensure they are getting the best possible deal for their real estate transactions.

5. Bid Rigging

Bid rigging occurs when companies collude to manipulate the bidding process on a project or contract. This illegal practice violates antitrust laws, resulting in significant fines for the involved companies. Bid rigging is a serious problem in the real estate industry, as it inflates prices and increases project costs. It can also foster corruption and fraud. Preventive measures, such as strict policies against bid rigging and thorough investigations of alleged violations, are crucial to maintaining fair competition and protecting consumers.

price fixing in real estate


In conclusion, price fixing poses a significant issue in the real estate industry that necessitates proactive attention from the government. Further investigation is required, and the real estate market should prioritize transparency in pricing practices. Consumers must be well-informed about the risks associated with price fixing to protect their interests.